1. Explain the notion of the head of a phrase by analyzing the internal elements of NP, VP. Why is it possible for a phrase category to consist only of its head, and in what sense we can say that all other elements of a phrase category are optional, but not the head? How is the notion of the head related to universal grammar? Provide examples wherever necessary to make your explanations clear.
2. In each of the NPs below the head is in bold italic. Identify all the things that modify the head and indicate if they are complements to the head, adjuncts to the head of specifiers to the head. (Assume determiners are specifiers.) Then draw trees for the phrases using X-bar theory. Do not simplify.
a. The red car of the student from the dealer in the city
b. Many cloths of women with blue ribbons in the store
3. In each of the VPs below the head is bold italic. Identify all the things that modify that head and indicate if they are complements to the head or adjuncts to the head. Then draw trees for the phrases using X-bar theory. Do not simplify.
a. Jogs in the gym on weekends
b. Often willingly performs his homework during the evening
4. In each of the AdjPs, AdvPs, and PPs below the head is in bold italic. Identify all the things that modify that head and indicate if they are complements to the head of adjuncts to the head. Then draw trees for the phrases using X-bar theory. Do not simplify.
a. Very fearful of the storm
b. Seldom enthusiastic about the assignment (this one is tricky)
c. Very quietly
d. Straight to class
e. Right in the middle
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