# Record yourself saying the following sets of words. Be sure to record directly in .wav format and aim to eliminate any background noise

## STEP 1: Recordings and Spectrograms

Record yourself saying the following sets of words. Be sure to record directly in .wav format and aim to eliminate any background noise.

Then, use PRAAT to draw pictures of the corresponding spectrograms and insert them into the document below. Your spectrogram images should be as clear as possible, they should show frequencies up to at least 6000Hz, and they should include marks on the vertical axis at every 1000Hz.

(See video titled “Drawing Images in PRAAT” posted in Lecture 5 for demonstration.)

• Spectrogram picture of beat /bit/, bit /bɪt/, bait /bejt/, bet /bɛt/, bat /bæt/

• Spectrogram picture of bought /bɑt/, boat /bowt/, book /bʊk/, boot /but/, but /bʌt/

• Spectrogram picture of boy /bɔj/, bowed /bawd/, bout /bawt/, bide /bajd/, bite /bajt/

• Spectrogram picture of beer /bɪɹ/, bear /bɛɹ/, bar /bɑɹ/, bore /bɔɹ/

• Spectrogram picture of ban /bæn/, bag /bæg/, and bang /bæŋ/

## STEP 2: Formant values

Use PRAAT to determine the values of the first two formants (F1 and F2) of the vowels you produced in your recording.

Remember:

• For monophthongs, measure the formants at the midpoint of the vowel.
• For diphthongs, measure the formants at the vowel portion of the diphthong (about 1/3rd or 1/4th of the way in).
• For vowels are followed by /ɹ/, you should measure the formants in the same way you would for diphthongs: about 1/3rd or 1/4th of the way in.

(See video titled “Measuring Formants in PRAAT” posted in Lecture 5 for demonstration.)

Enter the formant values (rounded to the nearest whole number) into the following tables.

Table 1: Front vowels

 F1 F2 beat /bit/ bit /bɪt/ bait /bejt/ bet /bɛt/ bat /bæt/

Table 2: Back and central vowels

 F1 F2 bought /bɑt/ boat /bowt/ book /bʊk/ boot /but/ but /bʌt/

Table 3: Diphthongs and potential Canadian Raising

 F1 F2 boy /bɔj/ bowed /bawd/ bout /bawt/ bide /bajd/ bite /bajt/

Table 4: Vowels before /ɹ/

 F1 F2 beer /bɪɹ/ bear /bɛɹ/ bar /bɑɹ/ bore /bɔɹ/

Table 5: Potential /æ/-raising

 F1 F2 ban /bæn/ bag /bæg/ bang /bæŋ/

## STEP 3: Formant chart

Plot your words on the attached vowel formant chart. (i.e. For each word/vowel, draw a dot where the F1 and F2 intersect and label it with the corresponding word.)

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