Over-the-counter birth control

his is an argumentative research essay. Has to be 8 pages. I have the sources written into an annotated bibliography. I also have a rough draft to go off of as well.

RESEARCH ESSAY ASSIGNMENT

COLLEGE WRITING II

 

This paper will allow you to showcase your ability to construct an extended argument.  You will select a topic, research the topic, write an outline and two rough drafts, undergo peer review, and perform editing to create a final draft.

This paper will be structured in an argumentative model.  The topic should be something of interest to you – for instance, a hobby, an issue from your major, or a current event.  This is not an exhaustive list, just some possible suggestions; you can write about whatever you choose, as long as it can be researched and you can write a strong, argumentative thesis statement.  Your sources should be credible (select for authority, currency, content, accuracy, and lack of bias) and you should have seven (7) or more – minimum 3 scholarly/government, 4 popular/internet.

The early steps of the process will be graded complete/incomplete.  You will get full credit only if you turn in your outline and rough drafts on time, and no credit otherwise.  You will get credit for peer review only if you are in class on peer review day.  Late work will not be accepted.  You will receive feedback from your peers and also from me on your outline and rough drafts.  While your rough drafts do not have to be complete or perfect, they should at least have a beginning, middle, and end so the scope of the paper is clearly visible.

 

The criteria for assessment of the final draft are as follows:

  • Strong, argumentative thesis statement
  • Clear topic sentences and fully developed paragraphs
  • Overall organization makes the topic clear and understandable
  • Introduction sets the tone for the paper and conclusion ties up the paper and offers a final statement on the topic
  • Credibility of sources and appropriate use as evidence
  • Clear argument and appropriate claims, reasons, and supporting evidence

 

Phase 1:  Research

  • Proposal – 25 pts
  • Annotated bibliography – 75 points

 

Phase 2: Drafting

  • Outline: TWO (2) PAGES – 25 points
  • Rough draft 1: FIVE (5) PAGES/Peer review – 100 points
  • Rough draft 2: EIGHT (8) pages/Peer review 100 points

 

Phase 3: Completing

  • Final draft: TEN (10) PAGES – 200 points

Rough Draft

Birth control should be a right that all women in the United States should have access to.A great way to allow all females access to birth control would be to make it over-the-counter.Studies have shown that the contraceptive pill has low side effects and is overall safe. Makingbirth control over-the-counter would allow all women easier access to birth control as well asreduce the risk of unexpected pregnancies.Gynecologists have also done their own research on whether over-the-counter birthcontrol would be safe or not.“All forms of hormonal birth control should be available over thecounter, according to new recommendations released Wednesday by the American College ofObstetricians and Gynecologists….including the patch, vaginal ring and contraceptive injection,should all be made available over the counter…​”​(All Hormonal Birth Control Should beAvailable Over-The-Counter, OBGYN Group Says). Gynecologists decided thatover-the-counter birth control would actually be beneficial, especially for females already on thepill. “The biggest impact would be for the people who are currently using contraceptive pills,because they will likely have fewer gaps in their use if they don’t have to find time in their busyschedules to go to the doctor to renew their prescription” (All Hormonal Birth Control Should BeAvailable Over-The-Counter, OBGYN Group Says).Women should be given the right to over-the-counter contraceptives because somewomen have been denied a prescription refill due to pharmacists religious beliefs. Although thisshould not be a concern to him considering its not going into his body. “A Minnesota woman is

suing a former local pharmacist and CVS for allegedly refusing to fill her prescription for amorning-after pill…The pharmacist, George Badeaux, said he could not give her the medicationdue to “personal reasons” and his “beliefs,” and he also tried to discourage her from trying toobtain the drug at another store.” (A Woman’s Doctor Prescribed a Morning After Pill.Pharmacists Refused to Refill it, Suit Says). Allowing birth control to be over-the-counter wouldreduce the risk of this happening.A great reason why birth control should be moved over-the-counter is employers now don’thave to cover birth control under their health care plans due to religious beliefs. ​“The​​SupremeCourt ​ruled ​Wednesday that private employers who hold religious or moral objections​​to birthcontrol can be exempted from providing no-cost contraception to employees through​​healthinsurance as mandated by the Affordable Care Act…” (Employers Don’t Have to Pay for​​BirthControl for Religious Reasons, Supreme Court Rules). This is a huge issue because birthcontrol should be granted to all females and should not depend on others religious beliefs.The effects of birth control on teens are not as negative as some may think. Researchers​​say,“…​some of the potential negative side effects of oral contraception are less likely in youngerp​eople. For example, birth control pills that contain both estrogen and progestin come with anincreased risk of a type of blood clot called venous thromboembolism, but that risk is lower inteenagers than in older women,” (Over-the-Counter Birth Control Pills Would be Safe for Teens,Researchers Say, Rebecca Hersher). If birth control is easier to access, the teen pregnancy rateswill lower even more than they already have, “Between 2007 and 2013, the number of 15 to19-year-olds giving birth dropped 36 percent,” (Hersher). This is also causing the abortion rate togo down in the U.S. Reducing the barriers of birth control would allow easier access as well as

lower the rate of unexpected pregnancies and abortions in teens.Although over-the-counter birth control has ​many ​positive effects, it can cause dangeroushealth issues​, for example, in ​women who smoke. ​As the author explains,​“Blood vessels shouldb​e soft and pliable in order to transmit blood to the brain and body. In smokers, the vesselsb​ecome hard and brittle” (The Pill and Smoking: Understanding the Risks). ​Due to the hormonesin contraceptive pills, birth control affects the blood flow by causing the blood to becomethicker, meaning that “the combination of restricted blood vessels from smoking and thickerb​lood from birth control increases the risk of cardiovascular issues like strokes or heart attacks”(The Pill and Smoking: Understanding the Risks). ​Smoking and taking contraceptive pills can bea life​-​threatening combination ​because of the hardening and restriction ​smoking caus​es​.However​, there are non-hormonal types of birth control that reduce these risks for smokers.Many women are for the idea of over-the-counter birth control. A study was done with 52women between the ages of 18-44 years old. “Participants believed that Oral contraceptivesover-the-counter would prevent unintended pregnancy by improving anonymity, convenience,and access to contraception. Many participants faced barriers to receiving a prescription,including time, transportation, cost, stigma, embarrassment, and clinician refusal based onreligious reasons.” (Moving Oral Contraceptives Over-the-Counter). This shows that women ofall ages are for birth control being over-the-counter.A few states have been working their way towards making birth control over-the-counter.​​InOregon state, laws have been passed to allow pharmacists to prescribe birth control without adoctors signature. “Oregon’s move to pharmacist-prescribed birth control is an attempt toincrease access to the drugs and reduce unintended pregnancies, which make up more than half

of all pregnancies in the United States.” (States Start to Let Pharmacists Prescribe Birth ControlPills). California has followed in Orgeon’s foot steps by allowing pharmacists to prescribe birthcontrol without a doctor’s signature. “California pharmacists will begin writing their ownp​rescriptions for birth control next month, and lawmakers in Hawaii, Missouri, South Carolina,Tennessee and Washington are considering legislation that would give pharmacists the power top​rescribe contraceptives.” (States Start to Let Pharmacists Prescribe Birth Control Pills).In conclusion, over-the-counter birth control would be a great idea because it allowsevery female access to birth control contraceptives. This would help reduce the risk ofunexpected pregnancies without any inconveniceses.Works CitedB​reitenbach, Sarah. “States Start to Let Pharmacists Prescribe Birth Control Pills.” ​The PewCharitable Trusts​, 18 Feb. 2016,www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/blogs/stateline/2016/02/18/states-start-to-let-pharmacists-prescribe-birth-control-pills.Burke, Minyvonne. “A Woman’s Doctor Prescribed a Morning-after Pill. Pharmacists Refused toFill It, Suit Says.” ​NBCNews.com​, NBCUniversal News Group, 13 Dec. 2019,www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/woman-s-doctor-prescribed-morning-after-pill-pharmacis​ts-refused-fill-n1101586.Hersher, Rebecca. “Over-The-Counter Birth Control Pills Would Be Safe For Teens,R​esearchers Say.” ​NPR​, NPR, 16 Mar. 2017,www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2017/03/16/520268440/over-the-counter-birth-control-pi​lls-would-be-safe-for-teens-researchers-say.“​The Pill and Smoking: Understanding the Risks.” ​Abington​,www.abingtonhealth.org/healthy-living/health-news/library/articles-related-to-womens-heal​th-/the-pill-and-smoking-understanding-the-risks/.Sullivan, Kaitlin. “All Hormonal Birth Control Should Be Available over the Counter, OB-GYNGroup Says.” ​NBCNews.com​, NBCUniversal News Group, 24 Sept. 2019,w​ww.nbcnews.com/health/womens-health/all-hormonal-birth-control-should-be-availableo​ver-counter-ob-n1058341.Sundstorm, Beth. “Moving Oral Contraceptives over the Counter: Theory-Based FormativeResearch to Design Communication Strategy.” ​Taylor & Francis​, 19 Apr. 2020,w​ww.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10810730.2020.1752334.Voytko, Lisette. “Employers Don’t Have To Pay For Birth Control For Religious Reasons,Supreme Court Rules.” ​Forbes​, Forbes Magazine, 8 July 2020,w​ww.forbes.com/sites/lisettevoytko/2020/07/08/employers-dont-have-to-pay-for-birth-control-for-religious-reasons-supreme-court-rules/?sh=46bdd2356fe1.

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550 words
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