Extra Credit Vaccine Assignment


Answer questions below… The Astra-Zeneca COVID vaccine was the first vaccine approved for use by the European Union.  It was approved before either the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine were approved in the United States.  Astra-Zeneca applied for approval for their vaccine in the US, but has yet to obtain approval, and it’s not because it’s a bad vaccine.  In fact, it’s excellent.  So why has the Astra-Zeneca COVID vaccine not yet been approved in the US?  Read the following two links and summarize what you find below.  Your response is expected to be at minimum 7 sentences long. https://www.wired.com/story/the-astrazeneca-covid-vaccine-data-isnt-up-to-snuff/ (Links to an external site.) https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2021/03/23/coronavirus-covid-live-updates-us/ (Links to an external site.) There are other vaccines out there that are not used in the United States as of yet.  These are the Astra-Zeneca vaccine out of England, Sputnik V out of Russia, and finally CoronaVac (Sinovac’s COVID vaccine) and Sinopharm’s COVID vaccines, both out of China.  Provide a description of these vaccines – what is their vaccine design?  How efficacious are they?  What are their side effects?  Where in the world (in what countries) are they used?  Compare this with the Moderna & Pfizer vaccines – efficacy, side effects, and countries of use.  You can create a table if you like, use bullet points, or write it in an essay.  Be sure to cite your sources. Thoughtful, critical thinking, compare and contrast: Some people contribute to the rise of antibiotic resistance by not finishing their course of antibiotics prescribed by their doctor. How is this similar and how is this different from people who are taking only one shot of the two-shot vaccine protocols for the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine?  Does this contribute to the rise of vaccine resistant strains?  Explain your reasoning. Watch the following YouTube video on the US vaccines and the coronavirus variants: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3sq5DmK7RBQ Answer the following questions: 1 – How many genes are on the SARS-CoV2 genome? 2 – How many bases long is the SARS-CoV2 genome? 3 – How many structural genes are in SARS-CoV2 genome? What are they? 4 – How many nonstructural genes are in SARS-CoV2 genome?  What do they do? 5 – What is the S gene / S protein? 6 – What are the two regions of the spike protein structure and what do they do? 7 – How many amino acids are part of the S protein? 8 – What amino acids make up the Receptor Binding Domain and what does it do? 9 – How many neutralizing antibodies (epitope sites) are there for the S protein in humans?  How many are considered the “strong” epitope sites? 10 – How many of the strongest epitope sites are affected in the UK variant?  Does that mean there will be no immune response?   11 – How are the epitope sites affected in the CA variant, the South Africa variant, and the Brazil variant?  12 – What does mutation 614 do?  What does mutation 501 do?   13 – When Pfizer & Moderna originally thought about designing their vaccine, what did they think about doing?  Why is it good they didn’t do that? 14 – Critical thinking is essential when viewing internet videos, even ones as good as this.  There is a little inconsistency in this video between the chart that appears at minute 20 and the details of the variant mutations as shown just prior to that.  Describe what those inconsistencies are.      Read this NYT article on the likelihood of the United States attaining herd immunity to SARS-CoV2 and answer the questions below. https://www.nytimes.com/2021/05/03/health/covid-herd-immunity-vaccine.html 1.    Why does the author claim we will not be able to reach herd immunity in the US? 2.    What was the initial target herd immunity threshold determined by US scientists at the start of the pandemic? It was then re-evaluated over the summer.  Did the target go up or down?  Why did it change? 3.    Name 3 to 5 states where vaccine hesitancy is low. 4.    Name 3 to 5 states where vaccine hesitancy is high. 5.    What are some strategies described in the article that we could use to reduce the number of vaccine-hesitant people?

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