Make sure to provide in-text citations for your source of information. Put answers in your own words
1- Read Chapter 7 in Foner, Give Me Liberty: An American History
Chapter 7 summary Founding a Nation, 1783–1791
This chapter concentrates on the making of the U.S. Constitution and begins with a description of some of the colorful celebrations held in cities to honor the ratification of the Constitution. The chapter explains the strengths and weaknesses of the first written constitution, the Articles of Confederation. A key success of the Confederation Congress was its western land policy, including the Northwest Ordinance, while its inability to deal with financial and economic problems weakened the government. Those weaknesses as well as Shays’s Rebellion convinced many leading Americans of the need for a stronger central government. Their push for greater national authority resulted in the meeting of the Constitutional Convention (May–September 1787). The chapter covers the Convention’s debates on separation of powers, division of powers, and slavery. Ratification of the document was not a foregone conclusion. Federalists such as James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay worked hard at promoting support for ratification by writing a series of essays called The Federalist. The Anti-Federalists, concerned that the Constitution endangered liberty since it contained no Bill of Rights, opposed them. The “Voices of Freedom” for this chapter highlights the Anti-Federalist James Winthrop and includes David Ramsey’s piece praising American constitutions, state and federal. The chapter concludes with a discussion about who was included in “We the People.” Whites clearly did not consider Indians and enslaved blacks to be part of “the people,” and the liberties and freedoms guaranteed in the Constitution were not extended to those groups. As the nation consolidated and enlarged the meaning of freedom, a widening gap emerged between “free whites” and “enslaved blacks.”
2- Watch https://youtu.be/CyZaVH7dbqc
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