SMART GOAL PROJECT

Instructions

Prepare:
Before attempting this discussion,
Read the Week 4 Lecture.
Welcome to your fourth week of BUS105! It is the next to the last week of your first course at the University of Arizona Global Campus. In Week 3 you were able to explore more resources available to you. You were also able to consider the individuals who you personally know who can provide support to you if needed. Such emotional, academic, and technical support at the right time can lead to your ultimate academic success.
In addition, in Week 3 You were able to review and discuss skills that employers are interested in seeing in their employees. Developing the necessary skills throughout your career will continually add to your value as an employee. You now have the opportunity to continue to work on your academic success in Week 4.
 Week 4 Learning Activities
Discussion Forum: Discovering Task and Relational Behaviors
Leaders continue to focus on two significant functions when trying to guide or create successful businesses: relationships (relational leadership) and results (task-orientated leadership).
(Hinojosa, n.d.)
The first function that leaders focus on is the relationships between the leaders of the company and the employees. This is a very important function for leaders because often leaders mentor and develop future leaders. Good leaders also help their employees to be successful in their jobs.
The second function leaders focus on is generating needed or desired results for the business. In an age supported and driven by technology, people are still needed to build relationships and to generate acceptable results in and for businesses. Organizational leaders may seem vastly different from one another due to how much they focus on results compared with how much they focus on relationships with employees. You have your own leadership style based on tasks and relationships that are part of your job. Week 4 you will discuss your personal leadership style associated with both relationships and results.
Discussion Forum: Leader Behaviors for Success
Often what a manager is and what a leader is are treated as being the same thing by employees of a company. Some of the confusion can be caused by the fact that one person can often perform both roles within a company. It is very important to separate out the behaviors of a leader from the behaviors of a manager.
(Akuma, 2018)
Knowing what is needed from leaders and also what is needed from managers can help you with becoming successful at performing both roles. It can also help you with the relationships that you have with leaders and other employees. Reviewing articles at the Forbes (Links to an external site.) website will provide you with vital information about both roles. This information will be beneficial to you throughout your career.
Quiz: Integrity Matters
Having integrity is important in your personal, academic, and professional life. The demonstration of integrity might change depending on the situation, the underlying meaning of integrity does not.
As you prepare for this quiz by reviewing the Academic Integrity (Links to an external site.) and Academic Integrity Violations (Links to an external site.) sections of the the University of Arizona Global Campus Catalog, and engaging in the Integrity Matters interactive, think about how you can apply integrity in all areas of your life.  Also, reflect on the scenarios in the interactive. Each scenario will be highly beneficial in informing about the right actions that you can take so that you will not make academic integrity mistakes.
Once you complete these tasks, you will take a short quiz that will provide you an opportunity to reflect on what you have learned about integrity.
Note: You get two attempts for this quiz, so if you didn’t do well on your first attempt. Try it again! The grade book accepts the higher grade of your two attempts.
Forbes Magazine Subscription
At the Forbes School of Business & Technology, you will have the opportunity to take advantage of nearly a century’s worth of business research. As a student at the Forbes School of Business & Technology, you are provided with a one-year subscription to Forbes magazine. The subscription cost is covered in your material fees, so there is no out-of-pocket expense. In order to receive your hard copy, paper subscription, you just need to sign up and provide your mailing address. Signing up is a great perk and one way to stay current!
The Forbes Magazine Subscription page provides you information on how to sign up.
Keep yourself updated on the latest business news with Forbes magazine.
Assignment: N/A
In Week 4 you do not have a writing assignment to submit. Use this time to start organizing content for your Week 5 Final Project.
Read Chapter 4: Attending to Tasks and Relationships in the textbook. Most people would agree that good doctors are experts at treating disease and, at the same time, care about their patients. Similarly, good teachers are informed about the subject matter and, at the same time, are sensitive to the personal lives of their students. In leadership, the same is true. Good leaders understand the work that needs to be done and, at the same time, can relate to the people who help them do the job.
When we look at what leaders do—that is, at their behaviors—we see that they do two major things: (1) They attend to tasks, and (2) they attend to their relationships with people. The degree to which leaders are successful is determined by how these two behaviors are exhibited. Situations may differ, but every leadership situation needs a degree of both task and relationship behaviors.
Through the years, many articles and books have been written on how leaders behave (Blake & McCanse, 1991; Kahn, 1956; Misumi, 1985; Stogdill, 1974). A review of these writings underscores the topic of this chapter: The essence of leadership behavior has two dimensions—task behaviors and relationship behaviors. Certain circumstances may call for strong task behavior, and other situations may demand strong relationship behavior, but some degree of each is required in every situation. Because these dimensions are inextricably tied together, it is the leader’s challenge to integrate and optimize the task and relationship dimensions in his or her leadership role.
One way to explore our own task and relationship perspectives on leadership is to explore our personal styles in these two areas. All of us have developed unique habits regarding work and play that have been ingrained over many years, probably beginning as far back as elementary school. Rooted in the past, these habits regarding work and play form a very real part of who we are as people and of how we function. Many of these early habits stay with us over the years and influence our current styles.
In considering your personal style, it is helpful to describe in more detail your task-oriented and relationship-oriented behaviors. What is your inclination toward tasks and relationships? Are you more work oriented or people oriented in your personal life? Do you find more rewards in the process of “getting things done” or in the process of relating to people? We all have personal styles that incorporate some combination of work and play. Completing the Task and Relationship Questionnaire on pages 94–96 can help you identify your personal style. Although these descriptions imply that individuals have either one style or the other, it is important to remember that each of us exhibits both behaviors to some degree.Reflect:
Reflect on what you learned about your own leadership style. Do you consider yourself to be a task-oriented leader, or a relational-oriented leader? Do you do both well? What are the benefits of each style? One of the challenges leaders face when leading is knowing when to integrate in their task and relationship behaviors. Do you consider this a challenge for you in your leadership style?
Task Style
Task-oriented people are goal oriented. They want to achieve. Their work is meaningful, and they like things such as to-do lists, calendars, and daily planners. Accomplishing things and doing things is the raison d’être for this type of person. That is, these people’s reason for being comes from doing. Their in-box is never empty. On vacations, they try to see and do as much as they possibly can. In all avenues of their lives, they find meaning in doing.
In his book titled Work and Love: The Crucial Balance (1980), psychiatrist Jay Rohrlich showed how work can help people organize, routinize, and structure their lives. Doing tasks gives people a sense of control and self-mastery. Achievement sharpens our self-image and helps us define ourselves. Reaching a goal, like running a race or completing a project, makes people feel good because it is a positive expression of who they are.
Some clear examples of task-oriented people include those who use color codes in their daily planners, who have sticky notes in every room of their house, or who, by 10:00 on Saturday morning, have washed the car, done the laundry, and cleaned the apartment. Task-oriented people also are likely to make a list for everything, from grocery shopping to the series of repetitions in their weight-lifting workouts. Common to all of these people is their interest in achieving the goal and accomplishing the work.
Relationship Style
Relationship-oriented people differ from task-oriented people because they are not as goal directed. The relationship-oriented person finds meaning in being rather than in doing. Instead of seeking out tasks, relationship-oriented people want to connect with others. They like to celebrate relationships and the pleasures relationships bring.
Furthermore, relationship-oriented people often have a strong orientation in the present. They find meaning in the moment rather than in some future objective to be accomplished. In a group situation, sensing and feeling the company of others is appealing to these people. They have been described by some as “relationship junkies.” They are the people who are the last to turn off their cell phones as the airplane takes off and the first to turn the phones back on when the airplane lands. Basically, they are into connectedness.
In a work setting, the relationship-oriented person wants to connect or attach with others. For example, the relationship-oriented person would not be afraid to interrupt someone who was working hard on a task to talk about the weather, sports, or just about anything. When working out a problem, relationship-oriented people like to talk to and be associated with others in addressing the problem. They receive satisfaction from being connected to other people. They value the trust that develops in a group when relationships are strong.
A task-oriented friend described a relationship-oriented person perfectly when he said, “He is the kind of person who stands and talks to you, coffee mug in hand, when you’re supposed to be doing something like mowing the lawn or covering the boat.” A relationship-oriented person doesn’t find meaning in “doing,” but instead derives meaning from “relating” or “being.”
4.2 Leadership Snapshot: Ai-jen Poo, Director, National Domestic Workers Alliance
A portrait photograph of Ai-jen Poo in elegant attire with her hair pinned back.
Everett Collection Inc/Alamy Stock Photo
Ai-jen Poo is the director of the National Domestic Workers Alliance (NDWA) and codirector of Caring Across Generations. She came to this work after observing the challenges of caregiving for her grandfather, who had suffered a stroke and was placed in a nursing home, sharing a room with six ailing, elderly people. “The place smelled like mold and death,” she wrote in her book, The Age of Dignity: Preparing for the Elder Boom in a Changing America (Poo, 2015, p. 2). Her grandfather died three months later. After graduating from Columbia University in 1996, Poo began organizing domestic workers.
As a thought leader and social innovator, Poo sees the future effects of demographic trends such as a burgeoning elder population that will need care in the future. With the population of U.S. residents over the age of 85 expected to double in the next 20 years, more caregiving will be required. Poo sees how interconnected innovative family care solutions are with how we structure our future workplaces, and how the government will resource and regulate elder care.
“Over and over again, at key turning points, we have invested in the infrastructure needed to thrive as a nation and to lead the safe, productive, and fulfilling lives that as individual Americans we expect to live,” Poo wrote. “And over and over again, these big ideas, and the momentum behind them, not only transformed our lives but also transformed our economy. In fact, in many cases, these investments were our economy, and most certainly saved our economy. An infrastructure for care may seem different from an infrastructure for railroads, highways, electricity, or the Internet. There are no trees to clear or wires to lay. Yet care is among the fundamental building blocks of society. For any of us, thinking about our most basic needs, care always comes first. There’s no need for the Internet, or even electricity, if there’s no way to feed, bathe, or clothe yourself” (Poo, 2015, p. 143).
In her career, Poo demonstrates both relationship leadership and task leadership. To learn more about the needs of domestic workers, “she spent countless hours in parks, buses, and other gathering places for domestic workers, creating opportunities for these largely isolated women to share their experiences, guiding mistreated workers to appropriate legal channels, articulating the vital economic role of domestic workers, and developing with workers a framework of legal standards for the industry” (MacArthur Foundation, 2019). By listening to and caring about their experiences, Poo shows respect for domestic workers and acknowledges that their work has inherent dignity.
“There are more than 2.5 million women in the United States who make it possible for us to do what we do every day, knowing that our loved ones and homes are in good hands. They are the nannies that take care of our children, the housekeepers that bring sanity and order to our homes, and the home-care workers that care for our parents and support the independence of our disabled family members,” said Poo (Fessler, 2018).
Poo also builds relationships with the domestic workers, learning from them what their needs actually are, and connecting them with others in similar situations, to form a larger sense of identity and community. As the director of the NDWA, Poo has built a culture of trust and empowerment for women. Many of the organization’s staff work remotely, so twice per year they hold a retreat for all employees where they plan together, laugh together, and share stories. “An important part of the time together is connecting on a personal level, not because we need everyone to be friends, but to know one another’s context: Why are you here? What’s your story? Our personal journeys are an endless well of inspiration and resilience,” Poo explains (Fessler, 2018).
Poo has built her activist work on this foundation of caring for others. Her task leadership is expressed in several ways. First, she has envisioned ways to organize domestic workers into an effective and unified voice for change. As the director of the NDWA, her core responsibility is to help the organization to reach its goals of educating the public about how domestic labor should be viewed and valued, raising the labor standards for all domestic workers, and training new leaders for the labor movement. Poo does this by staying focused on the mission of the organization, developing programs that support that mission, and hiring and equipping employees to assist in this work: “NDWA centers the voice and leadership of women of color in everything we do” (National Domestic Workers Alliance, 2016).
Second, Poo has organized workers to advocate for legislation that acknowledges and protects domestic workers’ rights. In 2010, New York enacted the Domestic Workers’ Bill of Rights, which entitles workers to overtime pay, one day of rest per week, protection from discrimination, and three days of paid leave per year—after a hard-fought seven-year legislative campaign led by Poo and a dedicated group of workers and advocates. The bill also drew support from an unlikely coalition of domestic workers, their employers, and other unions forged by Poo’s ability to leverage common interests across diverse groups (MacArthur Foundation, 2019).
Poo received a “genius” grant from the MacArthur Foundation in 2014, and she was named one of Time’s 100 Most Influential People in the World in 2012 and one of Fortune’s 50 Greatest Leaders in 2015. While her task leadership has received the most recognition, the behavior Poo most attributes to her success is listening. “The best ideas from our organization have come from listening to our members,” she said. “And believe me—when you listen to women, especially to those who have been the least visible in society, you will hear some of the most extraordinary stories that represent the best of who we are as a nation. Listening is a practice; you don’t have to be a natural listener to be a good listener, and it’s something we can, and should, all learn to do” (Fessler, 2018).
In the previous section, you were asked to consider your personal style regarding tasks and relationships. In this section, we are going to consider the task and relationship dimensions of your leadership style.
Figure 4.1 illustrates dimensions of leadership along a task–relationship continuum. Task-oriented leadership, which appears on the left end of the continuum, represents leadership that is focused predominantly on procedures, activities, and goal accomplishments. Relationship-oriented leadership, which appears on the right end of the continuum, represents leadership that is focused primarily on the well-being of followers, how they relate to each other, and the atmosphere in which they work. Most leadership falls midway between the two extremes of task- and relationship-oriented leadership. This style of leadership is represented by the midrange area, a blend of the two types of leadership.
Men and women use both styles of leadership. However, they are not perceived the same way by observers when they use these styles. Though the U.S. workplace has become more egalitarian in recent years, social expectations still linger for women leaders to be more relational or communal than task oriented (Eagly & Karau, 2002). In order to be seen as effective leaders, women need to be especially conscious of how they balance the two styles. Zheng, Surgevil, and Kark (2018) found that women leaders balance these styles through seemingly contradictory pairs of traits that are directly linked to relationship- and task-oriented behaviors: demanding (task) and caring (relational); authoritative (task) and participative (relational); and distant (task) and approachable (relational). Women leaders will often switch between the behaviors depending on the situation, including first using the relationship style to build trust and then using authoritativeness to accomplish goals. In addition, women leaders seek to reframe a relational orientation not as weakness but as a reflection of their confidence. By bringing relationship and task behaviors into coexistence, women are able to advance their performance, rally others toward common goals, align people’s interests, and build leader–follower relationships.
As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, good leaders understand the work that needs to be done, as well as the need to understand the people who will do it. The process of “doing” leadership requires that leaders attend to both tasks and relationships. The specific challenge for the leader is to decide how much task orientation and how much relationship orientation is required in a given context or situation
Task Leadership
Task leadership behaviors facilitate goal accomplishment—they are behaviors that help group members to achieve their objectives. Researchers have found that task leadership includes many behaviors. These behaviors are frequently labeled in different ways, but are always about task accomplishment. For example, some have labeled task leadership as initiating structure, which means the leader organizes work, defines role responsibilities, and schedules work activities (Stogdill, 1974). Others have labeled task leadership as production orientation, which means the leader stresses the production and technical aspects of the job (Bowers & Seashore, 1966). From this perspective, the leader pays attention to new product development, workload matters, and sales volume, to name a few aspects. A third label for task leadership is concern for production (Blake & Mouton, 1964). It includes policy decisions, new product development, workload, sales volume, or whatever the organization is seeking to accomplish.
In short, task leadership occurs anytime the leader is doing something that assists the group in reaching its goals. This can be something as simple as handing out an agenda for an upcoming meeting or as complex as describing the multiple quality control standards of a product development process. Task leadership includes many behaviors: Common to each is influencing people toward goal achievement.
As you would expect, people vary in their ability to show task-oriented leadership. There are those who are very task oriented and those who are less task oriented. This is where a person’s personal style comes into play. Those who are task oriented in their personal lives are naturally more task oriented in their leadership. Conversely, those who are seldom task oriented in their personal lives will find it difficult to be task oriented as a leader.
Whether a person is very task oriented or less task oriented, the important point to remember is that, as a leader, he or she will always be required to exhibit some degree of task behavior. For certain individuals this will be easy and for others it will present a challenge, but some task-oriented behavior is essential to each person’s effective leadership performance.
Relationship Leadership
Relationship leadership behaviors help followers feel comfortable with themselves, with each other, and with the situation in which they find themselves. For example, in the classroom, when a teacher requires each student to know every other student’s name, the teacher is demonstrating relationship leadership. The teacher is helping the students to feel comfortable with themselves, with other students, and with their environment.
Researchers have described relationship leadership in several ways that help to clarify its meaning. It has been labeled by some researchers as consideration behavior (Stogdill, 1974), which includes building camaraderie, respect, trust, and regard between leaders and followers. Other researchers describe relationship leadership as having an employee orientation (Bowers & Seashore, 1966), which involves taking an interest in workers as human beings, valuing their uniqueness, and giving special attention to their personal needs. Another line of research has simply defined relationship leadership as concern for people (Blake & Mouton, 1964). Within an organization, concern for people includes building trust, providing good working conditions, maintaining a fair salary structure, and promoting good social relations.
Essentially, relationship leadership behavior is about three things: (1) treating followers with dignity and respect, (2) building relationships and helping people get along, and (3) making the work setting a pleasant place to be. Relationship leadership behavior is an integral part of effective leadership performance.
In our fast-paced and very diverse society, the challenge for a leader is finding the time and energy to listen to all followers and do what is required to build effective relationships with each of them. For those who are highly relationship oriented in their personal lives, being relationship oriented in leadership will come easily; for those who are highly task oriented, being relationship oriented in leadership will present a greater challenge. Regardless of your personal style, every leadership situation demands a degree of relationship leadership behavior.
As discussed earlier in this chapter, task and relationship leadership behaviors are inextricably tied together, and a leader’s challenge is to integrate the two in an optimal way while effectively adapting to followers’ needs. The U.S. Army has a saying: “Mission first, people always.” That means that the leader must nurture interpersonal and team relationships at all times in order to ensure that followers will be motivated to achieve their assigned goals or projects. Task leadership is also critically important in a company or an organization with a large number of newly hired employees or at a charter school with a cadre of new faculty members. It is also called for in an adult fitness class when the instructor is introducing a new exercise. Or, consider the family members of a patient going home after a major heart surgery who have to learn how to change dressings and give medications; they want the health professionals to tell them exactly what to do and how to do it. In situations like these, the followers feel uncertain about their roles and responsibilities, and they want a leader who clarifies their tasks and tells them what is expected of them. In fact, in nearly every group or situation, there are some individuals who want and need task direction from their leader, and in these circumstances, it is paramount that the leader exhibit strong task-oriented leadership.
On the other hand, it is also true that many groups or situations will have individuals who want to be affiliated with or connected to others more than they want direction. For example, in a factory, in a classroom, or even at a workplace like a fast-food restaurant, there are individuals who want the leader to befriend them and relate to them on a personal level. The followers are willing to work, but they are primarily interested in being recognized and feeling related to others. An example would be individuals who attend a cancer support group. They like to receive information from the leader, but even more importantly, they want the leader to relate to them. It is similar with individuals who attend a community-sponsored reading club. They want to talk about the book, but they also want the leader to relate to them in a more familiar way. Clearly, in these situations, the leader needs to connect with these followers by utilizing relationship-oriented behaviors.
In addition to task and relationship behaviors, Yukl, Gordon, and Taber (2002) identified a third category of leader behaviors relevant to effective leadership, which they labeled change behaviors. Based on an analysis of a large number of earlier leadership measures, the researchers found that change behaviors included visioning, intellectual stimulation, risk-taking, and external monitoring. This category of behaviors has been less prominent in the leadership literature but still is a valuable way to characterize what leaders do. Change behaviors are closely related to leadership skills and creating a vision, which we discuss in Chapter 5, “Developing Leadership Skills,” and Chapter 7, “Creating a Vision,” of this book.
Box 4.1 Student Perspectives on Task and Relationship Styles
The following examples are personal observations written by college students. These papers illuminate the distinct differences task and relationship orientations can have in real-life experiences.
Taken to Task
I am definitely a task-oriented person. My mother has given me her love of lists, and my father has instilled in me the value of finishing things once you start them. As a result, I am highly organized in all aspects of my life. I have a color-coded planner with all of the activities I need to do, and I enjoy crossing things off my lists. Some of my friends call me a workaholic, but I don’t think that is accurate. There are just a lot of things I have to do.
My roommate Steph, however, is completely different from me. She will make verbal lists for her day, but usually will not accomplish any of them [the items listed]. This drives me crazy when it involves my life. For example, there were boxes all over the place until about a month after we moved into our house. Steph would say every day that she was going to focus and get her room organized that day, but she’d fail miserably most of the time. She is easily distracted and would pass up the opportunity to get unpacked to go out with friends, get on Facebook, or look at YouTube videos.
No matter how much Steph’s life stresses me out, I have learned from it. I’m all about having a good time in the right setting, but I am coming to realize that I don’t need to be so planned and scheduled. No matter how carefully you do plan, something will always go awry. I don’t know that Steph is the one who has taught me that or if I’m just getting older, but I’m glad I’m learning that regardless.
—Jessica Lembke
Being Rather Than Doing
I am an extremely relationship-oriented person. While I know that accomplishing tasks is important, I believe the quality of work people produce is directly related to how they feel about themselves and their leader.
I had the privilege of working with fifth graders in an after-school program last year. There was a range of issues we dealt with including academic, behavioral, and emotional problems, as well as kids who did not have safe homes (i.e., no running water or electricity, physical and emotional abuse, and drug addictions within the home). The “goal” of our program was to help these kids become “proficient” students in the classroom.
The task-oriented leaders in administration emphasized improving students’ grades through repetition of school work, flash cards, and quizzes. It was important for our students to improve their grades because it was the only way statistically to gauge if our program was successful. Given some of the personal trials these young people were dealing with, the last thing in my “relationship-oriented” mind was working on their academics. These young people had so much potential and wisdom that was stifled when they were asked to blindly follow academic assignments. In addition, they did not know how to self-motivate, self-encourage, or get the work done with so many of life’s obstacles in their way.
Instead of doing school work, which the majority of my students struggled with and hated, I focused on building relationships with and between the students. We used discussion, role play, dance parties, and leadership projects to build their self-confidence and emotional intelligence. The students put together service projects to improve their school and community including initiating a trash pickup and recycling initiative at the school and making cards for a nearby nursing home. By the end of the year almost every one of my students had improved his or her grades significantly. More important, at our daily “cheer-for-each-other” meetings, the students would beam with pride for their own and others’ successes.
I guess my point in telling this story is that relationship-oriented leadership is more important to me than task. I much prefer “being” than “doing.” I am not an organized, goal-oriented person. I rarely make it out of my house without going back two or three times to grab something I forgot, and my attention span is shorter than that of a fruit fly. However, I feel that my passion for relationships and human connection is what motivates me.
—Elizabeth Mathews
A Blend of Both
The Style Approach categorizes leaders as being either task oriented or relationship oriented. While I agree that there are these styles of leadership, I disagree that everyone can be placed concretely into one or the other. The Ohio State study says it well by stating that there are “two different continua.” When it comes to determining where I stand on each continuum, I’d have to say I’m about even. Not surprisingly, my results of the Task and Relationship Questionnaire reflect these thoughts: I scored a solid 41 in both task- and relationship-oriented styles; I’m equally task and relationship oriented, with each of these styles becoming more prevalent in certain situations.
While I truly enjoy being around other people, making sure everyone is happy and that we all enjoy our time, I’m very focused and goal oriented. If I’m at the movies with my friends, I’m not worrying about a to-do list; alternatively, if I’m working on a group project for school, I’m not as concerned about making friends with the group members.
Completing tasks is very important to me. I have an agenda that I keep with me at all times, partly because without it I would never remember anything, and partly because it provides satisfaction and peace of mind. I make to-do lists for myself: groceries, household chores, homework, and goals. I thrive when I’m busy, but not if I’m disorganized. For example, this semester I’m taking 20 credits, applying to graduate schools, taking the GRE, and working at the bookstore. For me it is comforting to have so many responsibilities. If I have downtime, I usually waste it, and I hate that feeling.
I also feel, however, that I’m very relationship oriented. My task-oriented nature doesn’t really affect how I interact with people. I like to make sure people are comfortable and confident in all situations. While I pressure myself to get things done and adhere to a schedule, I’d never think of pushing those pressures onto someone else. If I were the leader of a group that wasn’t getting things done, I’d set an example, rather than tell someone what he or she should be doing.
For me, the idea of “two continua” really makes sense. Whether I am task or relationship focused depends on the situation. While I certainly want to have fun with people, I’m a proponent of the “time and place” attitude, in which people remember when it is appropriate to socialize and when it is appropriate to get a job done.
—Sally Johnson
In society, the most effective leaders recognize and adapt to followers’ needs. Whether they are team leaders, teachers, or managers, they appropriately demonstrate the right degrees of task and relationship leadership. This is no small challenge because different followers and situations demand different amounts of task and relationship leadership. When followers are unclear, confused, or lost, the leader needs to show direction and exhibit task-oriented leadership. At the same time, a leader needs to be able to see the need for affiliation and attachment in followers and be able to meet those needs, without sacrificing task accomplishment.
In the end, the best leader is the leader who helps followers achieve the goal by attending to the task and by attending to each follower as a person. We all know leaders who do this: They are the coaches who force us to do drills until we are blue in the face to improve our physical performance, but who then caringly listen to our personal problems. They are the managers who never let us slack off for even a second, but who make work a fun place to be. The list goes on, but the bottom line is that the best leaders get the job done and care about others in the procGood leaders are both task oriented and relationship oriented. Understanding your personal styles of work and play can provide a better recognition of your leadership. Task-oriented people find meaning in doing, while relationship-oriented people find meaning in being connected to others. Effective leadership requires that leaders be both task oriented and relationship oriented.
In your initial discussion forum post,
Share your task and relationship scores from the interactive.
Identify which leadership style is more dominant for you: task or relationship.
Discuss what you learned about your own leadership style. In doing so, consider these questions:
Do you feel your scores from the interactive are accurate?
Is one style better than the other?
What are the benefits of each style?
Your initial post should be a minimum of 200 words
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