4 different essay questions: dualism in descartes and plato. Freud and Sarte. What is philosophy?

Instructions

Please answer 3 of the following questions. The first 2 essay questions should be 1 page each single-spaced. The last should be 1.5-2 pages single-spaced.

-Dualism in Descartes and Plato (1 page)- In this essay, you will compare Descartes and Plato on the question of dualism. First, define what is meant by dualism, then describe Plato’s position, laying out the distinctions he makes between the soul and the body, being specific to which dialogues in which he makes this discussion. In the next section, go through Descartes’ distinction between the mind and the body in The Meditations. Does he agree with Plato? Why or why not? If he agrees, say how he extends Plato’s thinking. If not, then say how this derives from a different philosophical approach. What is the difference, then, between the soul in Plato and the cogito in Descartes? Finally make sure to have a thesis statement (conclusion) you are defending.
-Freud and Sarte- (1page) Freud and Sartre maintain seemingly opposing views when it comes to human freedom. First describe what Sartre’s view of human freedom is. Why do we sometimes flee from this freedom? How much control do we have over who we are to be? Secondly how is this different than Freud’s view of the human being? What are we driven by, if not a will for freedom? How is this different from Sartre? Use specific quotations from the text. Finally make sure to have a thesis statement (conclusion) you are defending.
What is philosophy?(1.5-2 pages) What is the difference between philosophy and sophistry or mere rhetoric? What does philosophy do differently than those who up to today take up our public squares with political speeches and so on? In this paper examine closely how three philosophers we have read describe their philosophical practice(Use Plato, Freud, and Descartes). One often feels after reading different philosophers that one doesn’t know the truth, that each one seems quite as good persuading us, such that many students in introduction to philosophy don’t know what to think by the end of it. Is there a difference between philosophy and rhetoric and if so, what is it? For each philosopher you mention, describe both the content of their philosophy and how this is linked to the method in which they take up philosophy. How are these philosophers different? Are you able to come up with a definition of philosophy that combines them all?

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