Interpersonal Psychotherapy Discussion 4 Interpersonal Psychotherapy Discussion 4 Using Yalom’s The Gift of Therapy, Wheeler’s Psychotherapy for the Advanced Pr

Interpersonal Psychotherapy Discussion 4

Interpersonal Psychotherapy Discussion 4

Using Yalom’s The Gift of Therapy, Wheeler’s Psychotherapy for the Advanced Practice Nurse, (Barry and Wheeler) Chapter 9, Interpersonal Psychotherapy, and

the following journal article

Markowitz & Weissman, Interpersonal Psychotherapy: Past, Present, and Future

After reading The Wheeler Chapter and the information from Markowitz and Weissman the nurse therapist has knowledge that Peplau based her theory on the work of Sullivan. Interpret Yalom’s work and how it is applicable for the APRN. Please view the slide information about Peplau’s work below:

The introduction of your paper should include:

Describe the interpersonal psychotherapy occurring in your clinical setting. If this is not occurring, describe how you will incorporate this into practice.

This paper should provide an overall reflection of the student’s clinical interpersonal psychotherapy experience and should demonstrate the student’s ability to process a therapeutic session; the student is expected to obtain skills to conduct psychotherapy this semester. The format of this paper is left to the discretion of the student as long as all requirements are included and APA 7th edition format is followed. Required readings support your work, however, you should use evidence-based journals and advanced practice nursing literature to inform and support your paper. Citations of references using APA 6th edition style are to support the analyses and interpretation of group dynamics. The paper should be under 20 pages.

1. Provide the setting, population, background information where the individual therapy occurs


2. Give case examples that illustrate the use of interpersonal psychotherapy

3. Describe the differences in approach when using IPT as compared to psychodynamic psychotherapy and the reason the approach works in this setting.

4. Describe the psychiatric issues in your case study and how IPT is helpful

5. Describe how the IPT approach compares to Peplau’s Interpersonal Model

John C. Markowitz* and Myrna M. Weissman Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, USA

Abstract The authors briefly describe the origins, theory, and development of interpersonal psychotherapy: its roots in clinical outcome research, its spread from major depression to other psychiatric disorders and its increasing dissemination as an empirically validated clinical intervention included in treatment guidelines. They attempt to forecast research, organizational and training issues the growing interpersonal psychotherapy community may face in the future.

Keywords Interpersonal; Psychotherapy; Diagnosis; Social Support; Life Events; Social Functioning

It began as an experiment, in a research setting. What became interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) was developed and tested in New England in a study designed in 1969, when the late Gerald L. Klerman, M.D., Myrna M. Weissman, Ph.D., and their colleagues added a psychotherapy condition to an 8-month randomized controlled trial for patients with major depressive disorder (Weissman, 2006). IPT thus became part of the first clinical efficacy study of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy for depression (Klerman, DiMascio, Weissman, Prusoff, & Paykel, 1974). The study yielded a manualized, time-limited psychotherapy, initially called ‘high contact’ and then renamed IPT. IPT was based on the principles of a medical model, defining major depression as a diagnosable and treatable psychiatric illness, and on empirically derived interpersonal factors related to depression (Klerman, Weissman, Rounsaville, & Chevron, 1984). Study results indicated that this therapy relieved depressive symptoms, improved social functioning and had additive effects to pharmacotherapy (Klerman et al., 1974; Weissman, Klerman, Prusoff, Sholomskas, & Padian, 1981; Weissman et al., 1979).Interpersonal Psychotherapy Discussion 4

In 1969, Gerald L. Klerman, M.D., invited Dr Eugene Paykel from London to design a randomized trial of a tricyclic antidepressant alone and with psychotherapy as a maintenance treatment for outpatients with unipolar depression. At that juncture, the optimal duration of maintenance pharmacotherapy and the role of psychotherapy in relapse prevention were not clear. At the time, many clinicians had an ideological belief in either medication or psychotherapy, disparaging the alternative (Weissman, 2006).

Klerman felt that a clinical trial of maintenance tricyclic antidepressants should mimic community practice: inasmuch as many depressed patients received both medication and psychotherapy in clinical practice, he wanted to include psychotherapy. If only as a milieu effect: as no firm evidence for psychotherapeutic efficacy existed, he was unsure whether

Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. *Correspondence to: John C. Markowitz, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit #129, New York, NY 10032, USA.

NIH Public Access Author Manuscript Clin Psychol Psychother. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2013 March 01.

Published in final edited form as: Clin Psychol Psychother. 2012 ; 19(2): 99–105. doi:10.1002/cpp.1774.


-PA Author M anuscript


-PA Author M anuscript


-PA Author M anuscript

psychotherapy would benefit patients. The first task in planning the study was to define the psychotherapy and specify the protocol. Klerman felt that the study psychotherapy should make sense in the context of time-limited treatment of depression. What emerged, initially called ‘high contact’ in contrast to a low therapist contact alternative, became IPT (Weissman, 2006). Interpersonal Psychotherapy Discussion 4

Three principles guided this initial work: the use of a randomized controlled trial, using a broad range of standardized assessments, and recognition of the need to replicate study treatment findings before disseminating the treatment. The assessments included measures not only of symptoms but of social functioning and quality of life. Gerald Klerman entrusted Myrna Weissman, a newly graduated social worker, with the design of the psychotherapy. She used Aaron Beck’s hundred-page, typed cognitive therapy manual as a guide, following Gerry’s dictum that they needed to similarly manualize supportive psychotherapy. Although Klerman, a psychiatrist, saw depression as basically a biological illness, he was impressed by how social and interpersonal stress exacerbated onset and relapse. Noting that ‘one of the great features of the brain is that it responds to its environment’, he felt that the interpersonal context of the onset of a depressive episode might be a target for psychotherapy. The basic assumption was that the onset or recurrence of a depressive episode was related to the patient’s social and interpersonal relationships at the time. The research group met weekly to develop the manual, reviewing cases and developing scripts from actual practice in order to define the treatment structure and content (Weissman, 2006).

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